The Demise of Lake Dojran
Amid the political and economic turmoil in the Balkans, an environmental catastrophe is taking place on the eastern border between the Republic of Macedonia and Greece. Doyran Lake (Dojransko Ezero), shared in almost equal parts between Macedonia
and Greece, is in mortal agony. Due to the long droughts of the late 1980s and the irregular exploitation of the lake and the streams feeding it, its water level has dropped severely. The drastic drop in the water level has caused a serious shock to the
lake's ecosystem; the flora and fauna of the lake has changed severely ; some species of fish have disappeared and others have drastically reduced in number. The fishing industry of the region and a unique traditional and environmentally sustainable way
of catching fish (with the help of the cormorant bird) is disappearing. Tourism used to be one of the main industries of the region. However, as the lake's coastline has turned into a belt of mud, tourists do not visit Doyran any more. As a direct res
ponse to the devastation of the regional economy, there is an increased human migration out of the region. The slow death of Doyran lake is a typical example of the hazards of unsustainable development. It is a textbook example of over-development, unsu
stainable agricultural practices, overpopulation, watershed destruction, ecosystem disturbance, and the politics of water security.
It appears that unless there is an urgent joint action for its restoration, Doyran Lake could very soon disappear from the world map. A report by the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC)1 estimates that if no measures are
taken, ``the lake will be dried up within a decade or so.''2 However, the politics of the region seems to be placing the environment on the back burner. Instead of addressing this environmental disaster, which affects both the Republic of Macedonia and
Greece, a Ôblame game'' is being played while the water level of the lake continues to drop. Moreover, the Doyran Lake disaster has received almost no attention as an international issue. European and other international organizations have been i
nformed of this catastrophe, yet have also failed to intervene, thinking that nothing can be done until Greece recognizes the Republic of Macedonia. Greek cooperation on Lake Doyran is crucial since a great majority of the water streams feeding the lake
are situated on the Greek side. As a member of the European Union, Greece is obligated to comply with the Union's ``common environmental policy,'' but the EU has done nothing to see that its own principles are respected. Impoverished by the economic cri
sis in the region and still struggling with its international recognition, the Republic of Macedonia cannot do much without help from the international community.
This paper will study the changes in the water level of Lake Doyran, the causes and the consequences to the lake's flora and fauna. Next it will examine how the basin's environmental crisis has affected its human population and the regional economy.
The efforts made by the regional governments and environmental organizations to remedy the situation will then be analyzed. Finally, this paper will suggest what future actions should be taken in order to salvage and possibly restore the lake, its ecosys
tem and the affiliated regional economy. Some of the avenues considered will be involvement by international organizations for the purpose of placing the issue on the political agenda, directing some of the international aid towards the solution of this
problem, improving agricultural practices in the Doyran watershed, and restructuring the regional economy to reduce excessive environmental pressures.
Doyran Lake is situated in the southeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia. At its optimum water level, the lake has a surface of 42.5 square kilometers (16.4 square miles), of which 62.54% (26.58 km2) belong to the Republic of Macedonia, and 37.46
% (15.92 km2) belong to Greece. It is about 8.9 km (5.53 mi) long, and at the widest point it is 7.1 km (4.4 mi). The maximum registered depth has been 10 meters (33 ft) of the optimum average 6.7 m (22.1 ft). At the optimum level of 148 meters above s
ea level (a.s.l.), the water volume of the lake is 289 million cubic meters.3 The lake receives its water from underground springs and a number of natural surface water flows, two thirds of which are on the territory of Greece.4 The largest is the river
Brestka (Hoja Suyu).5 On the northeastern part of the lake are a number of springs which in the past had a capacity of about 20 liters per second, now notably reduced. It is also assumed that a number of natural springs exist in the northern part, unde
r the lake bed.6
With the excavation of the canal Gyolaya7 (originally in 1808), Doyran lake was connected to the river Ayak, a tributary of river Vardar,8 and its water has been used for irrigating the agricultural lands in northern Greece. Since then, the level of t
he water has been over the 148 meter a.s.l. mark in 1901, 1914, 1920, and 1956, only on occasions when the Gyolaya canal has silted in or been artificially closed.9 From the construction of this canal, until the 1920s, the water level of the lake had dro
pped by 5 meters; during the last 15 years, the lake has experienced a drop of about 7 meters.10. When compared to a 7 meter drop in the course of a few millennia, this greatly accelerated decrease in the water volume of the lake in the course of the las
t two centuries points at a detrimental environmental effect of the human factor interference. The construction of this canal and the increasing use of the watershed for irrigation has greatly accelerated the, naturally lengthy, aging process of a typica
l eutrophic lake like Doyran.
Doyran Lake is used by animals and humans for a number of purposes. It is the home of many kinds of plant and animal life, such as a variety of algae, bamboo, fresh water crab, snails, fish and great assortment of birds. People use the watershed's gr
ound water for drinking and other municipal purposes. The lake itself is a fishery, and a place to take a refreshing swim during the hot summers. As such, it had developed into one of the main local vacation spots for the people of south-eastern Macedon
ia. Finally, the water of the lake, and the watershed in general, has been used for irrigation purposes.
In late 1955 and early 1956, because of abundant rainfall during the previous months the lake's water level was reaching its maximum and flooding some areas down the canal. In response, in March 1956 the Yugoslav11-Greek commission met and agreed on b
uilding a dam-gate in the canal Gyolaya, on the Greek side, with which the outflow of water from the lake would be regulated. Therewith, they agreed to maintain a set maximum (Macedonia-147.34 m a.s.l., Greece-146.00 m a.s.l.) and minimum (Macedonia-146.
14 m a.s.l., Greece 144.8 m a.s.l.) level of the lake.12 This agreement did not take into consideration ecological principles necessary for the stability of the lake as an ecosystem; it only dealt with the water level of the lake (as a resource, most li
kely to prevent flooding or secure enough water for irrigation).
During the last 15 years, the water level of Lake Doyran has experienced a continuous, accelerated drop. This drop has been the result of normal variations in the temperature and rainfall,13 and resource management failure. During the period between
1976 to 1987 (which was a very rainy period), in the fall months the water level was always under the minimum stipulated in the 1956 bilateral agreement, as the Greek authorities were increasing the amount of land irrigated through the canal, as well as f
rom the inflowing streams. In 1988 the region experienced an extreme drought, and by the month of July the water level fell 25 centimeters (9.85 inches) under the minimum agreed level. Yet, the Greek authorities continued to draw irrigation water from t
he lake through the canal Gyolaya, breaking the agreed norms. For unknown reasons, the Macedonian authorities did not undertake any measures to convince Greece to close the canal and stop the excessive outflow of water. Furthermore, on July 28th Greece
appealed to the Yugoslavian government, and in the name of good neighborly relations and under pressure from the Yugoslavian Federal Secretariat for Foreign Affairs, the Macedonian authorities approved 5,000,000 m3 of lake water to be used by Greece for i
rrigation. This was the beginning of the end of Lake Doyran. From the 28th of July till the 29th of August, Greece used double that amount; consequently, after a considerable intervention by the Yugoslavian authorities, the canal was closed on August 29
Dr. Momchilo Andreevik criticizes the Macedonian state (republic) authorities for being ignorant about the problems of Doyran Lake and not considering the scientific data presented to them by the experts in the region, thereby allowing Greek authoritie
s to cause catastrophic damage to the lake 15 It could be that they were under considerable pressure from the Yugoslavian federal government, and again politics came before science and the environment.
On the other hand, Greece, as a potential/new European Community member, was under increased pressure to rapidly develop its economy ``up to west European standards.'' Economic development was given priority over environmental protection. A 1983 OECD
review of Greece's environmental policies noted estimates of future water use suggesting an increase of 80% between 1980 and 2000, which would have to be met increasingly from groundwater. As ground water already was a significant source of water for ir
rigation, the review report assessed that ``there is a risk that demand for groundwater may reach or exceed sustainable yields in some areas and this could lead to drawdown, loss of pressure and salinisation of some aquifers.'' Further on this report war
ns that ``the projected growth in demand, the full allocation of the more easily exploited sources of supply, the need to tap more distant and more expensive sources of supply, and increasing difficulty of maintaining water quality will raise new, or inte
nsify old, issues of water management.''16
The period from 1988 to 1993 was a drought period, with average annual rainfall of 497 mm (19.88 inches), 30% less than the 1976-1987 average.17 In the course of those same years , Greece increased the area of irrigated land from 2254.1 hectares18 in
1988 to 2380.1 hectares in 1992, which is a bit more than the 1986 level (during the rainy period).19 This northern region is the breadbasket of Greece; such a large area of agricultural (agribusiness) development demands a great deal of water. On the
Macedonian side only 40 hectares of arable land are irrigated from the watershed, due to the different terrain and the smaller land surface available for agriculture. Both sides claim that during this period they only used ground water for drinking and
irrigation.20 In Macedonia it is now forbidden to use water from the lake for irrigation. However, most of the lake's tributaries are used for irrigation on both sides, reducing the volume of water they bring into the lake. Since more than 2/3 of the o
riginal water input from rivers comes from the Greek side, their increase in irrigated lands particularly harms Doyran Lake. The very use of ground and surface water from the watershed's periphery could have drastically affected the water supply of the
lake during this period of drought, especially after the level had already lowered way under the agreed minimum.
In the meantime, between 1988 and 1992, 55-60% of the initial amount of water disappeared at the average rate of 43 centimeters level drop a year.21 In 1993, measurements of the lake water level indicated that the drought drained the lake one centimet
er every day.22 In 1994 the level reduced by ``only'' 14 cm, due to the relatively higher amount of rainfall that year. On December 12 1994, the level of the lake was determined to be at 224 cm (7.4 ft) under the ``zero level''23 or 344 cm (11.35 ft) un
der the minimum water level stipulated in the 1956 bilateral agreement. At the level of 142.69 meters a.s.l., the water volume of the lake was reduced by net 40% in relation to its optimum condition.24
It is evident that the people utilizing this water resource did not foresee the possible long term consequences of their actions. In a search for rapid development, they did not plan for normal climatic variations, allowing themselves to be caught in
a bind when nature did not perform according to their expectations (a best case scenario). Then, instead of facing their mistakes and curbing their water use when the need for conserving was obvious, they insisted on meeting short term development goals.
Possibly, if ``small sacrifices'' had been made at the early stage, more dramatic ``shock treatments'' would not be required now.
The continual loss of water surface and volume causes serious shocks to the lake's ecosystem, which further exacerbates the internal biogeochemical feedback mechanisms. A shore belt that is more than a hundred feet wide remains without water; the resu
lting drastic changes in phytoplankton and periphyton communities bring about disturbances in the whole ecosystem. This coastal part is usually the richest one in water organisms, including most of the lower trophic organisms critical to the food web. B
ecause of the disturbed ecological balance, in this desiccated part there has been a loss of biomass on a surface of about 21 hectares (51.89 acres). Most of the rocky and ``bamboo belt'' habitats have been left dry, and with them have disappeared many e
ndemic species for which the lake was famous . With the bamboo have gone a number of algae, snails,25 and fresh water crab26, some of which were rare or unique for this lake. Moreover, a number of new organisms (algae, snails, insects)27, characteristic
of marshes, have appeared. Knowing that for the fish of Doyran Lake the fauna of the bottom represents one of the main food sources, the destruction of the periphytonic and littoral ecosystems causes a definite reduction in fish populations and diversit
The reduced depth of the water allowed sun rays to penetrate to the bottom, enabling photosynthesis to the lake floor, which results in increased production of vegetation. The reduced living space, combined with increased plant production and dying ou
t of living organisms, results in decomposition of deposited organic material on the bottom of the lake and increased consumption of oxygen. This, in turn, could lead to anaerobic processes and a change in the pH balance of the lake's water, leading to e
Due to the extremely high production of its periphytonic communities, Doyran Lake was one of the most productive lake-fisheries in Europe (with an average of about 178.4 kg/ha or 157 pounds of fish per acre).29 The changes in the quantity and quality
of water in the lake and the destruction of the periphytonic habitats and ecosystems have adversely affected the fish's food sources and process of reproduction. Fish cannot lay spawn in the reed any more since the reed is now destroyed. In 1989 the ava
ilable fish harvest was about 30% of the lake's long-term average. Due to the changes in the water level, some species of fish have disappeared and others have drastically reduced in number. The main fish types harvested from Doyran Lake have been: roac
h (Cyprinidae Leuciscinae Rutilus rutilus dojranesis Kar.), carp (Cyprinidae Cyprininae Cyprinus cario L.), perch (Percidae Perca fluviatilis macedonica Kar.), bleak(Cyprinidae Leuciscinae Alburninae Alburnus macedonica Kar.), eel (Anguilla anguilla L.),a
nd sheath-fish (large catfish)(Siluridae Silurus Glanis L.). Today, the eel has practically disappeared, while the presence of the other kinds has drastically reduced.30
Doyran Lake is the remnant of the Peonian Lake which used to belong to the group of natural Balkan lakes. It was so rich in fish that Herodotus, the ancient historian, remarked: ``It is enough to sit in the huts and the fish would come by themselves.
. .''31 By employing a unique traditional fishing technique, contemporary Doyran fishermen in Macedonia used to catch 450 metric tons of fish per year, and the fishermen from the Greek coast of the lake caught another 200 tons. Huts made of wood and ree
ds line the coast of Doyran Lake, witness of the ancient away of fishing which was transmitted from generation to generation.. This unique way of fishing32 employs the ``services'' of the cormorant birds who in the winter migrate to the warmer south Balka
ns from the Nordic countries.33 Doyran fishermen construct so-called mandri (man made pools) which are fenced on three sides and occupy about one hectare (2.5 acres) of the lake. In the autumn the fishermen enclose the shoal with nets, leaving the side
facing the lake open. In early winter, the fish swim from the cold deep waters toward the warmer shallow coast waters where the mandri are. Hunting for food, the cormorants chase the fish right into the mandri. The fishermen guard the enclosures, chas
ing away the cormorants and regulating their feeding. When ready, the fishermen close the mandri and collect the fish. ``The cormorants are our best assistants,'' say the fishermen.34
The large drop in the water level has now left the mandri on dry land and rendered them useless, ending a unique culture. As a result of the changes in the vulnerable ecological balance, as well as illegal over-fishing and water pollution, in 1988 fis
hermen could only catch 292.4 metric tons of fish; in 1989 the fish harvest was less than half the 1988 amount, that is about 30% the previous thirty-year-average.35
Variations of the Fish Harvest in Doyran Lake-the Republic of Macedonia, (1946 - 1989)
Time Period (years) Total fish harvest(metric tons per year)
1946-1988 (average) 478.1
Source: Mirhe Naumovski, ``Ribite i Ribarstvoto na Dojranskoto Ezero.'' Page. 126.
As most of the economic activities in this region depended on the lake, with its demise follows the demise of the whole regional economy. The tourism industry has been decimated, as the lake's beaches have turned into mud-baths. The numerous hotels
haven't seen a guest for at least five years. All of the other businesses which used to cater to the tourists have closed. With the two main industries destroyed, there is not much left in the Doyran region. As a result, there has been an increased mig
ration out of the region in search for employment and a ``better'' life.
Unfortunately, the author has no exact, up to date information available on the developments on the Greek side of the lake. A 1990 article in the Greek publication Rizospastis reports continuous reduction of the ``fish fund'' in the Greek part of the
lake, as fish are withdrawing into the deeper, Macedonian part of the lake. As part of the population in this part (the Kukush region), and the chances of sustaining this industry are quite slim, there are almost no fishermen of the younger generation.
Since the tourism industry is becoming unprofitable as well, there is increased migration out of the region.36 One could assume that today the situation is similar to the one in the Macedonian part, but economically less critical, as fishing and tourism
were not that important for that region. It appears that the Greek side of the lake was less suitable for tourism.37 Agriculture, on the other hand, seems to be the more critical regional industry and, consequently, a political and economic priority.
There were two major laws in the former Socialist Republic of Macedonia (former Yugoslavia) which dealt with environmental protection. The Law for Protection of Natural Rarities38 of 1970 and the Law for Protection of the Ohrid, Prespa, and Doyran Lak
es of 1977.39 With the Law for Protection of the Ohrid, Prespa and Doyran Lakes of the Republic of Macedonia, these lakes were named ``natural monuments of particular importance for the community'' and were put under special protection. This law regul
ated the regime of protection, setting limits to the use of the lakes' waters, providing for special programs, forming a council, and securing resources for protection of the lakes, maintaining expert scientific documentation, and coordinating urban plann
ing with its protection code.
A Program for the Protection of the Ohrid, Prespa and Doyran Lakes was completed in 1987 and it determined the measures and activities for the protection of the lakes, forms of scientific studies and other programs for observing the quality of the wate
r and the aquatic life, establishment of a monitoring system, and building systems for protection of the lakes from waste and pollution. This program also obligated the local municipalities to resolve the question of urban development with the basic prin
ciples of environmental protection. Regarding Doyran Lake, the program also provided for separate scientific studies in order to gain better understanding of the conditions particular to this lake.40
The author is not aware of any cooperation or coordination with the Greek authorities in regards to special protection for Doyran Lake during this period, except for the previously discussed water withdrawal negotiations in 1988. During the earlier ye
ars, Greece and Yugoslavia had participated in the bilateral Permanent Committee on Water Economy; in 1982, the two countries completed an ``exemplary study of integrated management of water and land resources of the river Axios.'' According to a review
by the OECD and Its Environment Committee, this study ``provides a useful basis for future negotiations and co-operation.''41 Greece is a downstream state of the river Vardar (Axios) and uses its water to irrigate its large tracks of agricultural land.
As a downstream state for most of its major rivers, Greece has always actively participated in bilateral and multilateral negotiation on regional river issues. However, it has not demonstrated an equal level of interest in regards to the lakes it shares
According to the REC report, Greece demands action on the Vardar River which flows through Macedonia into Greece and carries pollution from Macedonian industry. The NGO ``Dojransko Ezero'' has been trying to build pressure on the Macedonian government
to make a contingent agreement between Macedonia and Greece: Clean up Vardar in return for protection of Doyran Lake.42 The problem is, since the disintegration of Yugoslavia (1991), Greece has refused to recognize the Republic of Macedonia's independe
nce and ceased cooperation with its authorities. When the Macedonian government tried via the United Nations (UNESCO) to have the lake protected as a World Heritage Site,43 Greece refused to sign an agreement.44
Within the Macedonian government, the offices involved in issues concerning the environment have been the Ministry of Urbanism, Physical Planning, Traffic and Ecology, which had a small environmental section (three people); The Ministry of Science; and
the Parliamentary Commission for Environment. The ministry of Urbanism drafts environmental laws for the government. According to the Central and Eastern Europe Legal Initiative (CEELI), ``The Ministry of Urbanistics, Traffic, Construction, and Ecology
is about to be unjumbled, but the exact split is still under debate,'' about how to divide the ministry into two new ministries, group ecology with urbanistics or establish a separate ministry.45 The Ministry of Science is considered by many people to b
e the most active ministry in Macedonia with respect to protection of the environment. The Parliamentary Commission for Environment consists of eleven members: seven from the parliament and four outside experts. Their task is to advise parliament and go
vernment on environmental issues.46
As it was well known that Doyran was a fragile ecosystem, without much of a buffer capacity, a number of concrete efforts were made to protect its waters from pollution and overuse. For this reason, in 1986 waste water treatment facilities were built
for many hotels in the area. The facilities worked well in the first few years of operation, but later they faced many technical problems due to a lack of funds to maintain and repair them. The ecological non-governmental (NGO) association ``Dojransko E
zero'' was founded in 1988, and the very same year it was involved in supporting local authorities' activities to reduce fishing in the lake. By 1993 there was only one fishing enterprise left, but according to REC, illegal fishing increased.47
Since the independence of Macedonia, the environmental protection work of all of these government bodies, as well as local/municipal authorities has been ``frozen.'' Until March 1995, there was not a law passed yet that would deal with these issues; c
onsequently, authorities lacked the tools to implement environmental policy. In a transition from ``self-managing socialism'' to a market economy, as well as to an independent state, most laws were to undergo changes, and no one was quite sure whether a
nd to what extent the ``old'' laws from the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (Yugoslavia) were still in force. The Macedonian Parliament finally adopted the laws on protection and improvement of the environment and on urban planning on March 22, 1995. Th
ey also passed the Space Plan for Macedonia. 48 What these laws entail for Doyran lake, and the environment in Macedonia in general, remains yet to be seen.
According to a 1990 study by Violeta Drakulovska and Boris Gelevski from the Republic's Institute for the Protection of Natural Rarities,49 ``even though the existing laws and regulations provide a base for effective protection of the lakes, in practic
e the implementation of protection does not give the expected results.''50 There was a gap between the acknowledged need for protection and its practical implementation, resulting in a number of illegal activities. The coast of the lake was strained by
the construction of too many tourist facilities; instead of the recommended 7200 ``bathers'', during the summer weekends the beaches used to ``host'' 30,000 to 50,000 visitors; for the purpose of creating more room for beaches, some coastal ``bamboo zones
'' were destroyed with chemicals; too much water was released from the lake without the authorization of the organization for the protection of natural rarities. This study cites the following as causes of the degradation of Doyran Lake: Non-compliance
with the space-planning regulation; uncoordinated, conflicting interests; inadequate financing; inadequate presentation of environmental protection as an economic category, and its treatment as a barrier to the economic development of the republic; the la
ck of an inspection body from the field of environmental protection; and the lack of timely involvement of the appropriate expert services when undertaking actions in the areas of these natural treasures.51
Nowadays, decentralization of government is causing confusion over environmental competencies and jurisdictions. Legislators and organizations dealing with social and political issues are overwhelmed by the sheer magnitude of the task before them, whe
re a whole society needs to be restructured. The country is experiencing a wider economic (embargoes on the North, on Serbia, and South, by Greece; economic restructuring) and political crisis (problems with international recognition, war in the neighbor
hood, internal power struggles). Governmental and non-governmental organizations lack finances, experience and management skills. Moreover, in Macedonia there has not been as much western assistance as in other parts of eastern Europe, especially not fo
r the purpose of environmental protection. This is gradually changing, as international agencies and non-governmental organizations are getting increasingly involved in Macedonia. In the case of Doyran Lake, however, it is somewhat difficult for Macedon
ians to take Western commitment to better environmental policies seriously, as they see Greece, a member of the European Union, being ``allowed'' to completely neglect this environmental disaster, and the European Union not doing anything to correct the p
roblem on ``their side.''
The move to market economies in the region is imposing additional pressures on the regional industries to become more efficient and cut down their costs. That is hardly conducive to better environmental practices, at least certainly not in the initial
stages. Duncan Fisher assessed the situation by 1992 as a period when ``the political process is throwing up a range of barriers against the integration of environmental policy into economic development,'' rather than the hoped for ``historic opportunit
y to build environmental considerations into the new economies of Central and Eastern Europe.''52
The Ecological Movement of Macedonia (DEM), an association representing about 30 environmental NGOs , in cooperation with the NGO Dojransko Ezero, organized a conference in November of 1990, where participants from Macedonia and Greece (The Ecological
Movement of Thessaloniki) held a round-table discussion on the problems and the protection of the lake. A book was published, a collection of articles on the different aspects of the Doyran Lake crisis. The participants sent an appeal to the Yugoslavian
and Greek governments to undertake concrete measures for saving Doyran Lake. They requested that a joint, non-political, non-governmental, expert-scientific group be formed which will follow the recovery of the lake and control its aggregate absolute wa
The scientists who met at the 1990 conference organized by DEM and the NGO Dojransko Ezero made suggestions for the restoration of Doyran lake. Before all, they demanded that the governments of both countries abide by the agreed on minimum and maximum
levels and the amount of outflow of the lake's water through the canals; the canal Gyolaya (Gjol-Ayak) to remain closed and drawing of any water from Doyran Lake be forbidden. They also listed the following priorities: reduce the exploitation of surface
and ground waters in the watershed area, except for drinking; stop the inflow of any kind of polluted waters into the lake; forbid the use of any kind of gas driven vehicles on the lake; reforest/replant the watershed area to prevent erosion and cultivat
e agricultural crops which require less irrigation; examine the possibility for building an dam/reservoir downstream from the Gyolaya canal gate in order to accumulate the eventual excess (flood) waters and use them in times of drought; jointly regulate t
he fishing industry, re-enforce the existing and enact new international agreements to establish a strong regime of protection; enable free flow of information on the condition of Doyran Lake; and, as mentioned above, form a bi-lateral commission for prot
ection of the lake which would be made of various experts from both countries and whose recommendations would be binding for both sides. 54
It is important to note, however, that the scientific efforts of experts and ecologists from the two countries have been very disjointed. Most of the studies of Macedonian or other Yugoslavian scientists include very little, if any, data about the con
ditions on the Greek side of the lake. Even an article in the Macedonian daily Vecher (Veher) commented: ``it is incomprehensible for the geologists of one country not to have examined the part of the lake's environment which is on the territory of the
other country.''55 Due to Greece's refusal to recognize the Republic of Macedonia and its passports, in the last few years Macedonian citizens have not been even able to visit Greece. Consequently, Macedonian scientists cannot precisely know what is hap
pening on the Greek side of the lake. Communication with Greek environmentalists has also been disrupted due to the political squabble between the two nations.
Due to the efforts of Macedonian environmental organizations, there has been some involvement by international environmental organizations. In June 1993 two representatives from Friends of the Earth International (John Hontelez and Mara Silina) visite
d Doyran and later effected some international pressure; an EC member of parliament questioned Greece on the issue in the EC parliament.
In October 1993, the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC), sent a fact finding mission to Macedonia, with the purpose of collecting information on the situation of the environment and the environmental movement in the coun
try. They later published a report outlining the condition of the environment in Macedonia, with special emphasis on the pollution of the Macedonian lakes Doyran, Ohrid and Prespa. Concerning Lake Doyran, REC reported that ``only an international agreem
ent between Greece and Macedonia, or actions on the Greek side, can save Lake Doyran.'' They also assessed that ``in the present relationship between the two countries, and the low public pressure in Greek society, this is difficult.''56 The REC Local G
rants Program awarded ECU 7000 to five projects in 1993. The same program was to be ECU 30,000 for 1994, and a local office in Skopye was opened January 1995.
The Ecological Movement of Macedonia (DEM) has made a number of attempts to establish cooperation with Greek and other international environmental organizations, in order to prepare a joint project and to gain support for increasing the pressure to bot
h countries' officials for the protection of Doyran Lake. Internationally, DEM has contacted the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Friends of the Earth International (of which DEM is a member), Green Way, the United Nations Environmental Program, the European C
ommission for the Environment, Council of Europe, and others. According to Josif Tanevski, president of DEM, ``they are all powerless because they consider the problem to be politically colored and it cannot be helped until Greece recognizes Macedonia an
d begins cooperating with the republic.'' He also stated that they have brought up this problem at all European conferences they have attended and they have not received any assistance as of yet because of the delicate relationship between Macedonia and
Greece. Moreover, Greece vetoed the European Union PHARE57 program for assistance to Macedonia (Greece is an EU member).58
Within Greece, DEM has made contact with Elliniki Etairia (Hellenic Society for the Protection of the Environment and the Cultural Heritage) in Thessaloniki, The Greek World Wildlife Fund division in Athens, and the Golandris Museum for Natural History
-Greek Center for Biotops and Wetlands in Thessaloniki (through Friends of the Earth-Eastern Europe). In a letter of May 19, 1994, Mrs. Myrto Pyrovetsi of Elliniki Etairia-Thessaloniki replies to John Hontelez, Chairman of FoE International (re: DEM's a
ppeal for cooperation) by stating that ``lakes in general, particularly those in the Mediterranean countries, are very dynamic systems with their water levels fluctuating within the year or between the years'' and that ``in these systems we may determine
maximum or minimum water levels only for short periods due to the considerable changes evolved in time.'' Evidently, a 40 percent drop in the water level of a lake in five years is a normal occurrence. Instead of addressing the catastrophic changes in t
he level and, consequently, the ecosystem of the lake, Mrs. Pyrovetsi recalls times when, in 1974, Greece received all flooding water from Doyran, ``with severe impact and damages on the Greek agricultural land.'' She also alludes to other problems with
Prespa Lake, the river Vardar (Axios) and other water flows the two countries share, in general arguing that the Doyran lake disaster is not Greece's fault.59 Professor Gerakis of the Golandris Museum for Natural History-Greek Center for Biotops and Wetl
ands in Thessaloniki also attributes the water level drop to the drought, bringing up past events when Greece suffered damages to help Yugoslavia, and supplying figures to prove that Greece has not done anything wrong.60
It is rather discouraging when environmental organizations set politics as a priority before the urgent needs of the environment. An environmental disaster like Doyran Lake's should be a priority for environmentalists, and others for that matter, rega
rdless of past and present politics. Doyran Lake may be shared by two countries, but it is still one bio-regional unit. Nature does not know borders, and environmental movements should not either, unless they are just window dressing. Environmentalists
are there to influence their governments to address environmental issues, not to relieve their governments of the responsibility to protect the environment or to recite the programmed party line.
Possibly, there is a true misunderstanding, as neither side seems to have the complete information of how much water is used and by whom. If this is indeed the case, comprehensive studies should be conducted to understand the criteria upon which irrig
ation decisions are made; to provide improved information about how much water is used, at what time of year it is used, and how it is distributed throughout the region. The people who are using this water need to be consulted; the farmers, municipal wat
er system officials, and fishermen are the ones who have first hand information on their official and unofficial water use behavior, the history of the hydrological activity on their land, and the dynamics of the lake.
Regardless of who or what caused the demise of Doyran Lake, both governments must do whatever is necessary to restore this natural resource. The whole Doyran basin's well being depends upon the health of the lake. The demise of the lake would be disa
strous to both countries. Consequently, the people of the region must put aside their differences and do something before it is too late.
Achieving the cooperation of the two countries' authorities is a decidedly tricky task; it is one of the main problems in getting action started on revitalizing Lake Doyran. Presently the two governments are negotiating on basic political issues such
as Greece's recognition of the Republic of Macedonia, the lifting the embargo against the republic, etc. Once relations between the countries have normalized, it will undoubtedly be easier to get something done to restore the lake. However, this may not
happen for years to come and there may not be a lake to restore any more. Therefore, it is essential to initiate some kind of negotiation on this particular issue aside from the rest of the political agenda. In this aspect, regional and international o
rganizations (environmental, political, etc.) will be critical.
The communities in the area of the lake, who are the ones most affected by the demise of the lake, will have to make this issue a high priority and aggressively lobby their governments and international political bodies to get involved. Grassroots com
munity action is crucial for mobilizing the political machine. Environmental and other international organizations should provide leadership, information, organization, and education. At a higher level of grassroots community involvement, demonstrations
,61 letter writing campaigns, rallies and conferences may be organized.
The non-governmental activities and organizations concerning environmental issues have been relatively better developed in Macedonia compared to activities in other spheres , which mostly relied on the government to provide leadership. Nevertheless, g
rassroots movements and non-governmental organizations are still quite underdeveloped as compared to those in the West. This appears to be an issue in many other east European countries. Analyzing environmental policy making in eastern Europe in general
, Duncan Fisher writes:
``As a result of the fall of the environment from a high place in the political agenda, environmental advocates in the region are now accepting that their task will be long and hard. One problem is that the processes for applying such pressure are ver
y immature-the democratic form grafted onto the societies of central and eastern Europe has still to generate real substance.''62
It appears that many of the people in the area are just beginning to realize that nobody will solve their problems for them, and that they are the ones who will have to fight, and fight long and hard.
The regional environmental organizations should establish contacts with other organizations around the world which have dealt with similar issues63 and achieved some successes. For the purpose of this paper, the author communicated with the Mono Lake
Committee and the Tahoe-Baikal Institute in California, USA. The Mono Lake Committee launched a ``war'' on the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, and achieved a victory. In their effort to restore Mono Lake, they utilized litigation (fifteen yea
rs of it); this may be a way to approach the Doyran problem, depending on what legal basis is provided by Macedonian, Greek, and international law. The Mono Lake Committee could be of great assistance here, in terms of organizational training, strategie
s and exchange of ideas. The Tahoe-Baikal Institute is an example of cooperation between two organizations (and governments) for the purpose of study, exchange of ideas, raising international awareness of regional watershed issues, and other types of mut
International environmental organizations, particularly ones within the European Union, must get more involved in raising public awareness of the Doyran Disaster. Being an EU member, Greece is obligated to protect their own, and international waters.
According to European Parliament's environmental policy publications, ``the European community must play and active part in preserving the balance and the biological diversity of the planet'' and ``Europeans have been concerned since 1979 to protect wild
birds in the territories of the Member States and also their eggs, nests and habitats.``64
The European Parliament has already intervened in Greece to prevent a development project in the Greek Mikra Prespa reserve financed by the EC which would have wiped out a pelican colony.65 Perhaps, the EU should help Greece improve their agricultura
l practices, employing more water efficient irrigation methods, and provide for the protection of the Doyran watershed. The EU's Common Agricultural Policy provides for ``encouragement of practices compatible with the environment' in the form of ``income
support for farmers retaining or introducing farming practices compatible with the need to protect the natural milieu,'' and various other ``measures for the protection of the environment.''66 European environmental organizations could play a crucial ro
le in placing this issue on the European Parliament/European Commission for the Environment's agenda.
Both the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), as well as United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and many other governments are assisting Macedonia in its economic and political transformation; very little,
if any, of those moneys have gone towards environmental protection. A disaster like Doyran Lake certainly warrants to be on the priority list of aid organizations. Efforts must be made to raise awareness of Macedonian environmental issues. Regional en
vironmental organizations and governments are the ones who should pursue the assistance of international aid organizations, preparing projects and proposals and applying for grants. Perhaps local NGOs and governments lack the experience in working with i
nternational organizations and obtaining their grants; in this aspect, they could utilize the advice and training of similar organizations in other countries. Increased international pressure on both the Macedonian and the Greek governments is necessary
to propel them into action. In addition, international assistance may be needed in their attempts to wrestle the causes of the problem and implement conservation strategies.
It appears that the main issue to address is the use of the Doyran watershed (lake, tributaries, and groundwater) for agricultural purposes. Doyran Lake should not be connected to the river Vardar and used to irrigate such a large area. The canal Gy
olaya should be closed, at least until the lake reaches its optimum level, and then it should be under extremely tight, bilateral control and used as little as possible.67 Ideally, the mouth of the canal should be dammed such that the water cannot be dra
wn out through the canal after the lake reaches the minimum agreed upon level. The drawing of water in the watershed should be reduced to minimum until the lake reaches its optimum level. As tourism in the region is currently non-existent, the impact it
has on the lake is temporarily removed. This also reduces the water need for urban purposes. If the region plans to ever have tourism again, they must undertake major restructuring; build waste treatment plants, install low-flow toilets, and other wat
er saving facilities, as well as impose restrictions on the number of visitors allowed at one time. Without the lake, there would not be tourism; therefore, the industry has to accommodate itself to the environment, not vice versa.
Agriculture appears to be the main problem. The immediate need is to forbid drawing irrigation water from the lake and drastically reduce the use of ground and surface water in the immediate area. This will require drastic restructuring of the econom
y in the region, and at least for a few years the two countries' governments and the international community must assist the communities. As soon as possible, water conserving irrigation methods must be implemented, possibly drip systems, which are 20-30
% percent more efficient than surface systems68; The agriculture of the area would have to be reoriented towards more sustainable, less irrigated crops.69 Moreover, the use of pesticides has to be reduced and more organic farming practices should be imp
lemented. 70These changes will impose an up front cost, but will be much more efficient both economically and environmentally in the long run.
Both countries need stronger environmental and sustainable development movements which will demand from their governments to address these issues and will request the information, training, finances, and technology necessary to move in the direction of
sustainable development. The public must be informed and educated about the choices they have to make. The irony is, just one look at the desiccated Doyran Lake is a valuable lesson by itself.
Notwithstanding the Doyran Lake crisis, these changes have to be implemented, since both countries are facing water degradation throughout their territories. The present agricultural practices cannot be sustained; they will ultimately lead to the dest
ruction of the environment, and with it, the destruction of the economy.
As neighbors and citizens of co-riparian states, the people of Macedonia and Greece share a common interest in protecting their environment. The political dispute between the two countries is hurting the people on both sides of the border and both the
Macedonian and the Greek economies are suffering. The people of both regions are in need of a prompt resolution to these problems. An obvious natural disaster like Doyran Lake's may be the perfect ``excuse'' for the people of the two regions to finally
come together again. As the environmental situation further deteriorates, they may be forced to. People from both sides have shown resistance to the official ``party line' of national conflict. These are the individuals who can provide the leadership
and make the first motions towards cooperation and national reconciliation. Otherwise, the distribution of water and other natural resources in the region can become a source of further conflict and instability, which is the last thing the region needs.
Like the author of ``Decreasing of the Surface of Doyran Lake,'' (published in the Greek publication Oikotopia in March 1991) concluded, ``regardless of the unfavorable political relations between the two countries, the ecological optimism should be re
oriented towards sound solution of the problems which do not recognize borders and show the way to cooperation. . .''71 Hopefully, others will see it the same way.
Andreevic, Momhilo. ``Hidrografski i Hidrolowki Karakteristiki na Dojranskata Kotlina i na Ezeroto.'' (``Hydrographical and Hydrological Characteristics of the Doyran Valley and the Lake.'') Sostojbite i Perspektivite za Zawtita na Dojranskoto Ezero
Commission of the European Communities. Green Europe-Environment and the CAP March 1987.
Drakulovska, Violeta & Boris Gelevski, ``Zashtita na Dojranskoto Ezero Preku Zakonskite Odredbi i Prostorno-Planskata Dokumentacija.'' (``Protection of Doyran lake through Legal Decrees and Space-Planning Documentation.''). Sostojbite i Perspekti
vite za Zashtita na Dojranskoto Ezero. 131-137.
Ekoloshko Drushtvo Biserka. ``Trazhimo Spas za Dojransko Jezero.'' (Ecological Society Biserka, ``We're Seeking Salvation for Lake Doyran.'') Politika Septemvri (September) 17, 1990.
European Parliament. Europe 2000 1991.
Fisher, Duncan. Paradise Deferred: Environmental Policymaking in Central and Eastern Europe. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs; Ecological Studies Institute, 1992.
Gashevski, Milivoj, ed. Sostojbite i perspektivite za zashtitata na Dojranskoto Ezero. (The Conditions and Perspectives for Protection of Doyran Lake.) Skopje (Skopye): Dvizheye na Ekologistite na Makedonija (DEM), 1991.
Georgiev, Donho. ``Dojransko Ezero-Spushtaye na Nivoto na Vodata, Posledici i Sanacija.'' (``Doyran Lake-Lowering of the Water Level, Consequences and Restoration.'') Sostojbite i Perspektivite za zashtita na Dojranskoto Ezero. 9-15.
Gkeorgief, L. H ptwsh thz staqmhz tou nerou sth limnh Doiranh. Oikotopia, Martios 1991. (Reduction of the Surface of Doyran Lake,'' Oikotopia, March 1991.) ``Namaluvaye na Povrshinata na Dojranskoto Ezero.'' Sostojbite i Perspektivite za Zashtita
na Dojranskoto Ezero. 161-163.
Gleick, Peter H., ed. Water in Crisis: a Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Gruphe, <upho. ``Pilot Programa za Zaednihko Istrazhuvaye na Sostojbite na Dojranskoto Ezero Kako Ekosistem.'' (``Pilot Program for Joint Examination of the Conditions in Doyran Lake as an Ecosystem.'') Sostojbite i Perspektivite za Zashtita na D
ojranskoto Ezero. 147-151.
Ivanova, Marijana. ``Ezerski Egzodus.'' (``Lake Exodus'') Veher Noemvri ( November) 10, 1990.
Ivanova, M. ``Hep za Dojran,'' (``Plug for Doyran''), Veher Noemvri (November) 8, 1990.
Jancar-Webster. ``Former Yugoslavia.'' F. W. Carter and D. Turnock, eds. Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe. London: Routledge, 1993.
Janisliev, Kire. ``Cormorants Hunt in the Mandri,'' The Macedonian Times, September 28, 1994. 43.
Kostas Terzenidis. ``Isheznuva i Dojran.'' (Doyran is Disappearing as Well.'') Rizospastis Oktomvri 30, 1990. Sostojbite i perspektivite za zashtitata na Dojranskoto Ezero. 164-165.
Lemon, M, R. Seaton, And J. Park. ``Social enquity and the measurement of natural phenomena: the degradation of irrigation water in the Argolid Plain, Greece.'' International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology January, 1994. 206-2
Lepavcov, Aleksandar. ``Za nekoi Problemi so Upravuvayeto na Ekosistemite i Dojranskiot Ekosistem.'' (``About Some Problems with Management of Ecosystems and the Doyran Ecosystem.'') Sostojbite i perspektivite za zashtitata na Dojranskoto Ezero. 14
Macedonian Information and Liaison Service (M.I.L.S) News. Parliamentary Briefs. Skopje, 23 March 1995.
Naumovski, M. ``Ribite i Ribarstvoto na Dojranskoto Ezero.'' (``The Fish and Fishing of Doyran Lake.'') Sostojbite i perspektivite za zashtitata na Dojranskoto Ezero. 120-129
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Agriculture and the Environment in the Transition to a Market Economy. Paris: OECD, 1994.
OECD. Environmental Policies in Greece. Paris: OECD, 1983.
Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC). Report on a Visit to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Budapest: REC, January 1994.
Sapkarev, J., P. Angelovski, T. Petkovski, and S. Stankovic, ``Current Condition of the Zoobentos of Lake Doyran and its comparison with those of Earlier Investigations.'' Sostojbite i perspektivite za zashtitata na Dojranskoto Ezero. 99-117.
S.O.S. from Dojran Lake. Dvizheye na Ekologistite na Makedonija (DEM), 1993. (An information pamphlet of The Movement of Ecologists of Macedonia-DEM.)
Van der Leeden, Frits. The Water Encyclopedia. Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers, 1990.
V.M. Kako da se spasi Dojranskoto Ezero? (V.M. ``How to Save Doyran Lake.'') Nova Makedonija, Noemvri 3, 1990. Sostojbite i perspektivite za zashtitata na Dojranskoto Ezero. 164.
CEELI. The Bulletin. Vol. 4, issue 4. On the World Wide Web REC home page.
The Movement of Ecologists of Macedonia (DEM). Correspondence with Prof. Gerakis of the Goulandris Museum of Natural History, Thessaloniki, Greece. January, 1994.
Gerakis, P.A. of the Goulandris Museum of Natural History in Thessaloniki, Greece. Correspondence to the WWF and Friends of the Earth, January 3, 1994. Graph on p. 3.
Geraki, P. A. of the Golandris Museum for Natural History-Greek Center for Biotops and Wetlands in Thessaloniki. Correspondence to Jah Habrowski of the WWF-Eastern Europe, March 1, 1994.
Josif Tanevski, president of DEM. Correspondence to the author. February 28, 1994.
Pyrovetsi, Myrto, Elliniki Etairia Division of Thessaloniki. Correspondence to John Hontelez, Chairman FoE International in Niimegen, Netherlands. May 19, 1994.
Sluzhben vesnik na SRM, br. 16/65.
Sluzhben vesnik na SRM, br. 45/77.
1 The Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) is an independent, non-advocacy, non-profit foundation, established in 1990 by Hungary, the United States, and the Commission of the European Communities. The REC's mission is to
promote cooperation among diverse environmental groups and interests in Central and Eastern Europe; to act as a catalyst for developing solutions to environmental problems in this region; and to promote the development of a civil society. Beneficiary cou
ntries are Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, and Macedonia. In these countries, the REC primarily supports environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs), but also cooperates with local a
uthorities, national governments, academic institutions, and the private sector.
2 Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe. Report on a Visit to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Budapest: REC, January, 1994, point 6.2.
3 Meter (m)=3.281 feet (ft). Kilometer (km)=.621 mile (mi).
Square meter (m2)=10.764 sq. ft. Square kilometer (km2)=.386 sq. mi
4 Or 90%, according to some other sources???
5 Surface of 93.90 km2.
6 Donho Georgiev, ``Dojransko Ezero-Spushtaye na Nivoto na Vodata, Posledici i Sanacija,'' 9-10. ``S.O.S. from Dojran Lake,'' an information leaflet of The Movement of Ecologists of Macedonia (DEM), 1993.
Momhilo Andreevich, ``Hidrografski i Hidroloshki karakteristiki na Dojranskata Kotlina i na Ezeroto,'' p. 37.
7 The canal is more than 1.3 km. long. Also called Gyol-Ayak, this canal was excavated at the time when the land of Macedonia was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. In 1913, the territory of Macedonia was divided between Greece (south), Bulgaria (east),
and Serbia (north-west.) The north-western part, or so-called region of Vardar Macedonia, later became the Republic of Macedonia, a republic of the former Yugoslavian federation. The Gyolaya canal is now in Greek territory.
8 Vardar (Axios) is a relatively major regional river which emerges in northern Macedonia, runs through Macedonia and northern Greece, flowing into the Aegean Sea.
9 Momhilo Andreevik, ``Hidrografski i Hidroloshki karakteristiki na Dojranskata Kotlina i na Ezeroto,'' p. 42.
10 According to the findings of J. Tsviiky, the last/rear most terrace , clearly visible coastline of the lake was at the 160 m above sea level, that is 12 meters above today's lake elevation, when it is full with water (148 m. a.s.l.). Momhilo Andre
evik, ``Hidrografski i Hidroloshki karakteristiki na Dojranskata Kotlina i na Ezeroto,'' p. 36.
11 From 1944 to 1991, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, was a member (an autonomous republic) of the Yugoslavian Federation. Each republic of the federation had their own ``state'' governments and a relatively large (disputed) degree of autonomy in
their regional decision making. On foreign policy issues, however, the federal government was the authority. At the end of 1991, the Republic of Macedonia declared its independence, and it has existed independently since then.
12 Momhilo Andreevi`, p. 48-49.
13 Or possibly a climate change.
14 Momhilo Andreevich, p. 55. On page 54, Andeevik claims that at this time``in order to increase the flow of water into the canal to 3-4 m3/sec, the Greek authorities lowered (deepened) the canal by 70-80 cm.''
15 Momhilo Andreevi`, p. 55-56.
16 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Environmental Policies in Greece, Paris: OECD, 1983, p. 56.
17 DEM correspondence with Prof. Gerakis of the Goulandris Museum of Natural History, Thessaloniki, Greece. January, 1994
18 Hectare (ha)=2.471 acres
19 Correspondence by P.A. Gerakis of the Goulandris Museum of Natural History in Thessaloniki, Greece, to the WWF and Friends of the Earth, January 3, 1994. Graph on p. 3.
20 In 1990, the Greek fifteen year average groundwater use for irrigation was 8-10 million m3, and the Macedonian about 1 million m3. (According to Momhilo Andreevi`, p.47.)
21 REC report, point 6.2.
22 Kire Janisliev, ``Cormorants Hunt in the Mandri,'' The Macedonian Times, September 28, 1994, p. 43.
23 In Macedonia 144.93 meters above sea level, in Greece 143.60 m a.s.l. Approximately the lowest point before the lake's water begins to flow out through the canal's mouth.
24 Correspondence from Dr. Josif Tanevski, President of DEM, February 28, 1995.
However, the REC report states that in 1993 the volume of water had been reduced to 90 million m3 (by more than 70% the lake's optimum level); the average depth was 3m, compared to the 6-6.5 m. in 1988; the shores were drawn back by some 100 to 150 m
According to Momchilo Andreevik, in 1990 the water volume had been reduced from 262 million cubic meters to 144 cubic meters, that is, by 45% from the maximum agreed level, and 50% of the optimal level (148.00 elevation)
25 Limnaea palustris, Physa fontinalis, P.acuta, Planorbis corneus.
26 Candona Painoca, C.angulata meridionalis and Lymnocytere inopinata; Phystocipria inversa, unique for Doyran, was still holding out in 1990.
27 Hippeitis complanatus.
28 J. Sapkarev, P. Angelovski, T. Petkovski, and S. Stankovic, ``Current Condition of the Zoobentos of Lake Doyran and its comparison with those of Earlier Investigations,'' p. 99-117.
29 Thirty year average, calculated on 2800 hectares.
30 Mirhe Naumovski, ``Ribite i Ribarstvoto na Dojranskoto Ezero,'' p. 120-129.
31 Herodotus of Halicarnassus (c. 485-c. 425 B.C.) Kire Janisliev, ``Cormorants Hunt in the Mandri.''
32 Some people say that a similar way of fishing is used by fishermen in some lakes in China.
33 The catch was best in winter, because in late spring the carp spawn and in summer the water was too warm for the fish.
34 Kire Janisliev, ``Cormorants Hunt in the Mandri.''
35 Mirhe Naumovski, ``Ribite i Ribarstvoto na Dojranskoto Ezero,'' p. 126-128.
The 1993 REC report, on the other hand, quotes a number of 250 tons for 1992.
36 Kostas Terzenidis, ``Isheznuva i Dojran,'' Rizospastis, 30 Oktomvri, 1990. (Kostas Terzenidis, ``Doyran is Disappearing As Well,'' Rizospastis, October 30, 1990.))
37 It was a relatively smaller area of the lake, and covered with reed.
38 Sluzhben vesnik na SRM, br. 16/65.
39 Sluzhben vesnik na SRM, br. 45/77.
40 Violeta Drakulovska & Boris Gelevski, ``Zashtita na Dojranskoto Ezero Preky Zakonskite Odredbi i Prostorno-Planskata Dokumentacija,'' p. 131-137.
41Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Environmental Policies in Greece, Paris: OECD, 1983, p.67.
42 REC Report, point 6.2.
43 Another lake in Macedonia, Lake Ohrid, is already on the UNESCO World Heritage list.
44 REC report, point 6.2.
45 Source: CEELI, The Bulletin - vol. 4, issue 4. On the World Wide Web REC home page.
46 REC report, point 6.9.
47 REC report, point 6.2.
48 M.I.L.S News, Parliamentary Briefs, Skopje, 23 March 1995.
49 A government sponsored organization.
50 Violeta Drakulovska i Boris Gelevski, ``Zashtita na Dojranskoto Ezero Preky Zakonskite Odredbi i Prostorno-Planskata Dokumentacija,'' p. 138. Translated by the author.
51 Violeta Drakulovska i Boris Gelevski, p. 138.
52 Duncan Fisher, Paradise Deferred: Environmental Policymaking in Central and Eastern Europe, p.8.
53 Marijana Ivanova, ``Ezerski Egzodus,'' Veher, Noemvri 10, 1990. P. 7.
54 Sostojbite i Perspektivite za Zashtita na Dojranskoto Ezero, afterword, p 155-156.
A number of the presentations/studies developed more complex and detailed strategies for addressing environmental attitudes and problems concerning Doyran Lake. See more in: Aleksandar Lepavtsov, ``Za nekoi Problemi so Upravuvayeto na Ekosistemite i D
ojranskiot Ekosistem,'' r. 141-145; Violeta Drakulovska i Boris Gelevski, ``Zashtita na Dojranskoto Ezero Preku Zakonskite Odredbi i Prostorno-Planskata Dokumentacija,'' r. 138-139; <upho Gruphe, ``Pilot Programa za Zaednihko Istrazhuvaye na Sostojbi
te na Dojranskoto Ezero Kako Ekosistem,'' r. 147-151.
55 Marijana Ivanova, ``Ezerski Egzodus,'' Veher, Noemvri 10, 1990, p. 7.
56 Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe. ``Report on a Visit to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.'' Budapest: REC, January, 1994.
57 Polish and Hungarian Assistance for the Reconstruction of Europe programme, initiated at the 1989 Western Economic Summit in Paris, originally for assistance to Poland and Hungary, but later it was expanded to the rest of Europe.
58 Correspondence from Josif Tanevski, president of DEM, to the author, February 28, 1994.
59 A letter from Myrto Pyrovetsi, Elliniki Etairia Division of Thessaloniki to John Hontelez, Chairman FoE International in Niimegen, Netherlands. May 19, 1994.
60 Letter from Professor Gerakis of the Golandris Museum for Natural History-Greek Center for Biotops and Wetlands in Thessaloniki to Jah Habrowski of the WWF-Eastern Europe, March 1, 1994.
61 Possibly, a human chain around the lake.
62 Duncan Fisher, p. 8.
63 Mono Lake in California, the Aral Sea in the CIS, Lake Chad, etc.
64 European Parliament, Europe 2000, 1991, p. 3, 5.
66 Commission of the European Communities, Green Europe-Environment and the CAP, March 1987, p.16-18.
67 If the canal remains open, possibly the idea of building a small reservoir down the canal to collect excess water may not be a bad idea.
68 Water Encyclopedia, p.275, table E.8.
69 Examining another area(the Argolid Plain) of Greece experiencing water problems, Lemon, Seaton, and Park mention that since 1981, with the accession to the European Community and the introduction of various forms of price support and subsidy, tradit
ional non-irrigated crops have increasingly been replaced with irrigated fruit crops for which there has been an expending market. This would most surely apply to the northern regions of Greece; another clash of the market versus the environment.
70 The region could use more information and training in the field of better irrigation and organic farming. There is already international (World Bank, USAID) assistance in the direction of agricultural restructuring going to Macedonia; these issues
should be included.
71 Gkeorgief, L. H ptwsh thz staqmhz tou nerou sth limnh Doiranh. Oikotopia, Martios 1991. (Reduction of the Surfzace of Doyran lake,'' Oikotopia, March 1991.) Sostojbite i Perspektivite za Zawtita na Dojranskoto Ezero, p. 161-163.